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27 June 2019

Tarihin Rayuwar Ayatullah Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

An haifi Ayatullah Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ne a ranar 3 ga watan Shahribar 1313 (25 ga watan Augustan 1934) a kauyen Bahreman da ke kusa da garin Rafsanjan da ke lardin Kerman na kasar Iran. Mahaifinsa Mirza Ali Hashemi Behramani dai babban dan kasuwa ne a garin Kerman. Mahaifiyarsa ita ce Hajiya Khanom Mahbibi Hashemi. Mahaifansa dai mutane ne masu kauna da riko da addini.

Ayatullah Hashemi Rafsanjani ya fara karatunsa ne tun yana dan shekaru biyar a duniya a garin na su. A lokacin da ya kai shekaru 14 a duniya ne ya tafi birnin Kum inda ya shiga makarantar Hauzar garin don karatun addini. A yayin zamansa a Kum din ya karanci fannoni daban-daban na ilmummukan addini a wajen manyan malamai irin su Sayyid Husain Tabataba’iy Burujerdi, Imam Khumaini, Sayyid Muhammad Muhakkik Damad, Ayatullah Muhammad Ridha Golpaygani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Shari’atmadari, Abdulkarim Ha’iri Yazdi, Ayatullah Shahabuddeen Najaf Mar’ashi, Muhammad Husain Tabataba'i da Ayatullah Husain Ali Muntazari, har ya kai matsayi na ijtihadi.

A yayin wannan karatu na sa ne suka hadu da marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a) wanda yayi tasiri cikin rayuwarsa nesa ba kusa ba. Shi da kansa ya bayyana cewar ya fara sanin marigayi Imam Khumaini ne a lokacin da ya ke zaune a kusa da gidan marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a), idan ya dinga fitowa don ganin Imam a duk lokacin da zai fita, kana daga karshe dai har ya zama dalibinsa. Darussan marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a) da yake halarta musamman wadanda suka shafi siyasa sun yi tasirin gaske a gare shi da kuma share fagen shigarsa cikin harkar nuna rashin amincewa da hukumar Shah ta wancan lokacin; lamarin da ya sanya shi fuskantar tsangwama da azabtarwa kala-kala musamman bayan tura marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a) gudun hijirar da aka yi lamarin da ya ba shi damar ci gaba da wakiltar marigayi Imam a wasu ayyuka da kuma fadada ayyukansa na isar da sakon yunkurin juyin juya halin Musuluncin karkashin jagorancin marigayi Imam Khumaini. Daga shekarar 1960 lokacin da gwagwarmayar ta fara bayyana har zuwa shekarar 1979 lokacin da yunkurin yayi nasara, an kama Ayatullah Rafsanjani da tsare har sau 7, wanda idan aka hada lokutan ana iya cewa yayi zaman gidan yari na tsawon shekaru 4 da wata 5.

Kamun farko da jami’an tsaron tsohuwar gwamnatin Shah ta Iran din, wato SAVAK suka yi masa shi ne wanda ya faru a ranar 12, Esfand, 1343 (3, Maris, 1966) bisa zargin aikata "ayyukan da suke barazana ga tsaron kasa" inda suka tsare shi na tsawon watanni 4. Tsawon wannan lokacin ya fuskanci nau’oi kala-kala na azabtarwa masu tsananin gaske. To sai dai daga baya an sako shi sakamakon matsin lambar da manyan malamai da maraja’an lokacin suka yi wa gwamnatin.

Duk da irin wadannan azabtarwa da ake masa hakan bai hana shi ci gaba da wannan aiki na sa na isar da sakon juyin juya halin Musuluncin ba, hakan ne ma ya sanya gwamnatin haramta masa yin lakca duk dai da nufin rufe bakinsa, to sai dai hakan bai hana shi ci gaba da lakcocinsa ba. Haka dai lamarin ya ci gaba har zuwa lokacin da juyin juya halin Musuluncin yayi nasara a 1979.

Bayan Nasarar Juyi

Bisa la'akari da irin rawar da Ayatullah Rafsanjani ya taka yayin yunkurin juyin juya halin Musulunci da kuma irin matsayin da yake da shi a wajen Imam, don haka a fili yake cewa bayan nasarar juyin akwai bukatarsa wajen ciyar da gwamnatin Musuluncin da aka kafa gaba.

Don haka bayan nasarar juyin juya halin Musulunci ya gudanar da ayyuka da kuma rike mukamai daban-daban da suka hada da:

- Memba a majalisar juyin juya halin Musulunci, wacce aka kafa ta jim kadan bayan nasarar juyin. Ya kasance memba mai tsananin tasiri a majalisar.

- Mataimakin ministan cikin gida.

- Memba kuma daga cikin manyan wadanda suka kirkiro kungiyar nan ta “Kungiyar Malamai ‘Yan Gwagwarmaya (Combatant Clergy Association).

- Ya kasance daga cikin wadanda suka kirkiro jam’iyyar Islamic Republic Party tare da manyan malamai da jami’an Iran irin su Ayatullah Khamenei, Ayatullah Beheshti, Muhammad Jawad Bahonar da sauransu.

- Ya zama limamin Juma’ar birnin Tehran (na tsawon shekaru 30). Marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a) ne ya nada shi a wannan matsayin musamman bayan harin da aka kai wa Ayatullah Khamenei wanda shi ne limamin Juma’ar na Tehran da kuma jinyar da yayi na tsawon lokaci.

- Wakilin marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a) a majalisar koli ta tsaron kasa a lokacin kallafaffen yaki bayan shahadar marigayi Shahid Mustafa Chamran.

- Mataimakin babban hafsan hafsoshin sojojin Iran.

- Mataimakin babban kwamandan sojin Iran.

- Memba a kwamitin tsara dokokin zabe a Iran, wanda da shi ne aka gudanar da zaben farko a Iran bayan nasarar juyin juya halin Musulunci.

- Ya zama dan majalisar dokokin kasar Iran a karon farko bayan nasarar juyin juya halin Musulunci inda ya tsaya takara karkashin inuwar jam’iyyar Islamic Republic Party a 1980 a mazabar Tehran.

- Ya zama shugaban majalisar na tsawon shekaru 9 daga shekarar 1980 zuwa 1989.

- Bayan rasuwar marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a) a shekarar 1989 da kuma zaban Ayatullah Khamenei, wanda a lokacin shi ne shugaban kasar Iran a matsayin sabon Jagoran juyin juya halin Musuluncin, Sheik Rafsanjani ya tsaya takarar shugabancin kasa inda aka zabe shi a matsayin sabon shugaban kasar ta Iran. Ya rike wannan matsayi har na tsawon shekaru takwas (wato wa’adin farko da na biyu na shugabancin kasa). Daya daga cikin manyan ayyukan da ya ba su muhimmanci a wannan lokacin shi ne kokari wajen sake gina kasar ta Iran sakamakon hasarorin da kallafaffen yakin shekaru 8 ya haifar wa kasar.

- Bayan ya kare wa’adinsa na biyu na shugabancin kasa, Jagoran juyin juya halin Musulunci Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Khamenei ya nada shi a matsayin shugaban majalisar fayyace maslahar tsarin Musulunci na kasar, a ranar 3, ga watan Augustan 1997 mukamin da ya ke rike da shi har zuwa lokacin da ya rasu. Daya daga cikin manyan ayyukan wannan majalisa dai shi ne shiga tsakani a duk lokacin da aka sami sabani tsakanin Majalisar Dokoki (majalisar shawarar Musulunci) da majalisar kiyaye kundin tsarin mulki ta kasar Iran.

- A shekara ta 2006 ya zama dan majalisar kwararru ta jagoranci wacce take da alhakin zaba da kuma sanya ido kan ayyukan Jagoran juyin juya halin Musulunci na kasar.

- A ranar 4 ga watan Satumban 2007 an zabe shi a matsayin shugaban majalisar kwararrun bayan rasuwar shugaban majalisar Ayatullah Meshkini. Ya ci gaba da rike wannan matsayin har zuwa ranar 10 ga watan Maris 2011 lokacin da ya janye takararsa inda aka zabi marigayi Ayatullah Muhammad Ridha Mahdawi Kani a matsayin sabon shugaban majalisar.

- Duk da cewa ya sauka daga shugabancin majalisar kwararrun, amma dai ya ci gaba da zama dan majalisar.

Wadannan kadan kenan daga cikin irin mukamai da ayyukan da marigayi Ayatullah Rafsanjani ya yi bayan nasarar juyin juya halin Musulunci, wanda ko shakka babu ya taka gagarumar rawa a wannan bangaren. Don haka ne ma ake kirga shi daga cikin rukunai kana kuma tushen juyin juya halin Musulunci na kasar Iran kana kuma daga cikin dalibai kana mabiya marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a) na kurkusa sosai.

Bayan ga wadannan wahalhalu da Ayatullah Rafsanjani ya sha a hannun tsohuwar gwamnatin, har ila yau bayan nasarar juyin juya halin Musulunci ma ya fuskanci wasu hare-hare daga wajen makiya da nufin kawar da shi daga fage. Wata guda bayan nasarar juyin juya halin Musulunci, wasu 'yan ta'adda sun yi kokarin kashe shi bayan da suka harbe shi  cikinsa, to sai dai raunin da ya samu bai yi tsanani ba, hakan ma matarsa wacce ta yi tsalle ta kare shi daga harbin.

Haka nan a watan Fabrairun 1994, Ayatullah Rafsanjani ya sake kubuta daga wani kokarin kashe shi din lokacin da wani dan bindiga yayi kokarin harbinsa a lokacin da yake gabatar da jawabi don tunawa da shekaru 15 da nasarar juyin juya halin Musulunci. A wannan karon kan harsashin ma bai same shi ba, don haka ya ci gaba da jawabinsa ba tare da nuna wata damuwa ba.

 

A ranar Lahadi, 8 ga watan Janairun 2017 ne, Allah Yayi wa Ayatullah Rafsanjani rasuwa yana dan shekaru 82 a duniya bayan matsalar bugun zuciya da ya fuskanta. Jagoran juyin juya halin Musulunci Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Khamenei ne yayi masa salla a masallacin Juma'ar Tehran a ranar Talata 10 ga watan Janairun inda aka bisne ne a hubbaren marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a).

Ayatullah Rafsanjani ya rasu ya bar mace guda, wato malama Effat Marashi, 'yar Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Yazdi, daya daga cikin maraja'an Shi'a na lokaci da ke birnin Najaf al-Ashraf na kasar Iraki, wacce suka yi aure a shekarar 1958. Allah Ya albarkacin auren da 'ya'ya biyar, maza uku mata biyu: Muhsin, Mahdi da Yasir, mazan kenan sai kuma matan su ne Fatima da Faezeh.

Ayatullah Hashemi Rafsanjani ya rubuta litttafa da dama da suka shafi bangarori daban-daban na siyasa da addini, daga cikinsu akwai Tafsir Rahnama (littafin tafsirin Alkur'ani ne), Farhang-e Qur'an (Encyclopedia of Quran), Amir Kabir: the Hero of Fighting against Imperialism, The Combat Era (wanda yayi magana kan yunkuri da gwagwarmayar juyin juya halin Musulunci na marigayi Imam Khumaini (r.a) da dai sauransu.

Allah Ya jikansa ya sa ya huta.