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27 June 2019

Shi'a Da Abdullah bn Sabah

Shi'a Da Abdullah bn saba:
Daga:
Muhammad Awwal Bauchi
IRIB-Tehran - I.R.of Iran
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Da Sunan Allah Mai Rahama Mai Jin Kai

Daya daga cikin hanyoyin da makiya suka dinga bi duk tsawon tarihi wajen shafa bakin fenti da toshe hasken Ahlulbaiti (a.s), duk da cewa dai ba za su iya ba, ita ce hanyar kirkirar karya da jingina ta ga Ahlulbaitin ko kuma ga tafarkinsu. Daya daga cikin mafi girman irin wadannan kararraki shi ne batun Abdullah bn Saba da suka kirkiro da jingina shi ga wannan tafarki na Ahlulbaiti (shi'a) a matsayin wanda ya kirkiro shi, kamar yadda muka yi bayani a rubutun da muka yi a baya kan "Asalin Kafuwar Shi'a". Malamai da masu bincike daban-daban sun yi rubutu kan wannan labari na 'Abdullah bn Saba' da kuma nuna rashin ingancinsa, suna masu cewa shi ma dai wannan mutumi (Ibn Saba) ba a ma halicce shi ba, wato a duniyan nan babu wani mutum mai suna Ibn Saba, face dai makiya ne suka kirkiro shi don wannan buri da muka yi bayani a sama.

Daya daga cikin malaman da suka yi bincike kan wannan kirkirarren mutum (Ibn Saba) da tabbatar da rashin ingancin samuwarsa shi ne Allamah Sayyid Murtadha al-Askari da ke zaune a birnin Tehran na Jamhuriyar Musulunci ta Iran. A cikin littafinsa mai suna Abdullah bn Saba wa Asatir Ukhra ya yi cikakken bayani kan wannan batu inda ya tabbatar da karyar masu ikirarin samuwar wannan kirkirarren mutum.

Don haka abin da ke biye kadan ne daga cikin abubuwan da wannan littafi ya kunsa da kuma hujjojin da Allama al-Askarin ya kawo da ke tabbatar da rashin ingancin wannan ikirari:

Tun shekaru aru-aru malaman tarihi suke ta rubuta labarurrukan ban mamaki dangane da 'Abdullah bn Saba' da mabiyansa da suka kira Sabi'awa. Abin tambaya a nan shi ne:

 

  1. Wane ne Ibn Saba sannan kuma su wane ne Sabi'awa (mabiyansa)?.
  2. Mece ce da'awar da yake yi, sannan kuma wasu muhimman ayyuka ne ya aikata?

Yanzu bari mu yi dubi kan kadan daga cikin abubuwan da irin wadannan malumman tarihin suka fadi dangane da wannan kagaggen mutum: Malumman dai sun ce shi bayahude ne da ya zo daga Sana'a na kasar Yemen inda ya yi ikirarin karbar Musulunci a lokacin halifancin halifa Usman sannan ya ci gaba da kulla makirce-makirce ga Musulunci da musulmi ta hanyar yawace-yawace tsakanin garuruwan musulmi irinsu Kufa, Basra, Sham da Masar yana ta yada akidar cewa Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) zai dawo duniya kafin karshenta kamar yadda Annabi Isa (a.s) zai dawo, da kuma cewa Ali shi ne wasiyyin Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) kamar yadda kowani Annabi ya ke da wasiyyi, kuma Ali shi ne cikamakin wasiyyai kamar yadda Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) shi ne cikamakin Annabawa, sannan kuma halifa Usman ya kwace hakkin wannan wasiyyi (Ali) ne don haka wajibi a kawar da shi da dawo da wannan hakki ga mai shi.

Su dai wadannan malamai sun kira wannan gwarzo na tarihin nasu da suna 'Abdullah bn Saba' kuma suka masa lakabi da 'Ibn al-Amatu al-Sawda' (wato dan bakar baiwa). Har ila yau sun ci gaba da cewa shi wannan mutumin ya watsa da dama daga cikin mabiyansa zuwa kasashen musulmi da ikirarin cewa suna yada asalin Musulunci da kuma umarni da ayyuka na kwarai da hani da munana, da kuma kiran jama'a da su yi tawaye ga shuwagabanninsu. Daga cikin mutanen da suka karbi wannan kira nasa har da wasu manyan sahabbai da tabi'ai irin su Abu Zar, Ammar bn Yasir, Muhammad bn Abi Huzaifa, Abdurrahman bn Udais, Muhammad bn Abi Bakr, Sa'asa'a bn Sauhan al-Abdi , Malik al-Ashtar da dai sauransu daga cikin manyan musulman farko.

Har ila yau kuma sun ce: Sabi'awa a duk inda suke suna kokarin janyo mutane zuwa ga tafarkinsu, sun kasance sukan tunzura mutane a kan shuwagabanni abin da har ya sanya mutanen suka nufi Madina da kuma mamaye gidan halifa Usman kana daga karshe suka kashe shi. Sannan kuma sun ce wai: bayan da musulmi suka yi mubaya'a ga Ali, Talha da Zubairu sun yi masa tawaye inda suka nufi Basra don yakar Ali (a yakin Jamal). Lokacin da wadannan Sabi'awa suka ga za a yi sulhu tsakanin bangarorin biyu (na Ali da 'yan tawaye) sai suka fahimci cewa hakan zai sa a nemi diyyar jinin halifa Usman da aka zubar, don haka sai suka fara kulla makirce-makirce da rura wutan yakin a fakaice ba tare da bangarorin biyu sun gane ba. Suka shiga cikin dukkanin rundunonin da haifar da yaki a tsakani, wato dai a takaice haka yakin ya faru ba tare da jagororin bangarorin biyu sun ma san abin da ke gudana ba.

Haka dai kissar Sabi'awan ta kare ba tare da malaman sun sake ambatar wani abu dangane da su ba.

To amma don karin haske kan rashin gaskiyar wannan labari da kuma tabbatar da kirkirarsa aka yi don wata manufa, bari mu yi dubi cikin rayuwar kadan daga cikin wadannan fitattun bayin Allah da aka ce suna daga cikin Sabi'awa, wadanda wani bayahude (Abdullah bn Saba) ya yi wasa da hankulansu da kuma tusa musu mummunar akidarsa.

Wadannan manyan mutane dai su ne:

  1. Abu Zar al-Gaffari.
  2. Ammar bn Yasir.
  3. Muhammad bn Abi Huzaifa.
  4. Abdurrahman bn Udais.
  5. Muhammad bn Abi Bakr.
  6. Sa'asa'a bn Sauhan al-Abdi.
  7. Malik al-Ashtar.

1- Abu Zar al-Gaffari, Jundub bn Junada:

Shi ne mutum na hudu daga cikin mutanen da suka fara karban sakon Musulunci. A da dai ya kasance daga cikin masu bauta wa gumaka, amma lokacin da ya musulunta sai ya zo dakin Ka'aba ya bayyanar da Musuluncinsa, inda Kuraishawa suka ta dukkansa har sai da suka sumar da shi, bayan da ya farfado sai Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya umarce shi da ya koma garinsu, bayan yakin Badar da Uhud, ya dawo Madina inda ya ci gaba da zama tare da Manzo har lokacin da ya rasu, sai ya koma Sham ya ci gaba da zama, to sai dai daga baya halifa Usman ya dawo da shi ya kuma tura shi gudun hijira zuwa wani kauye da ake kira Rabaza, inda ya rasu a can shekara ta 32 bayan hijira.

Akwai ruwayoyi daban-daban da aka ruwaito daga Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) da suke fadin falala da daukakan Abu Zar, daga ciki kuwa har fadinsa (s.a.w.a) cewa: "Hakika tsakanin kasa da sama babu mai fadin gaskiya kai tsaye da sadaukarwa kamar Abu Zar"(1).

2. Ammar bn Yasir:

Wanda kuma ake kira da Abu Yakzan, ya kasance daga cikin kabilar Bani Tha'alaba, mahaifiyarsa ita ce Sumayya. Shi da mahaifansa suna daga cikin mutanen da suka fara karban sakon Musulunci, shi ne mutum na bakwai daga cikin wadanda suka fara karban Musulunci. Bayan karbar Musuluncinsu, Kuraishawa sun ta azabtar da su har suka kashe mahaifansa.

Akwai ruwayoyi da dama da aka ruwaito daga Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) da suke magana kan daukakarsa. Daga cikin akwai fadinsa (s.a.w.a) cewa: "Hakika (zuciyar) Ammar cike take da imani". Ya kasance tare da Amirul Muminina Ali (a.s) a yayin yakin Jamal da Siffin, ya yi shahada ne a fagen fama (a yakin Siffin) yana dan shekara 93 a duniya(2).

3. Abul Kasim Muhammad bn Abi Huzaifa:

Mahaifinsa shi ne Utbah bn Rubai'a al-Abshami, mahaifiyarsa kuwa ita ce Sahlah bint Suhail Ibn Amr al-Amiriyya, an haife shi ne a Habasha lokacin Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a), halifa Usman ya dauki nauyin kula da shi bayan shahadar mahaifinsa a Yamama. Lokacin halifancin halifa Usman, ya amince wa Muhammad da ya tafi Masar, to sai dai daga baya Muhammad ya yi wa gwamnan Masar din Abdullah bn Sa'ad bn Abi Sarh tawaye lokacin da ya tafi Madina a shekara ta 35 hijiriyya da nada Ukba bn Amir da ya yi a matsayin mataimakinsa. Daga baya kuma ya hana gwamnan dawowa garin bayan da jama'a suka masa mubaya'a. Bayan wani lokaci kuma (saboda wasu dalilai) ya aika da kimanin mutane 600 karkashin jagorancin Abdurrahman bn Udais zuwa Madina don yakan Usman. Ya ci gaba da mulki har lokacin da Mu'awiyya ya iso Masar a hanyarsa ta zuwa Siffin, inda Muhammad ya tsare shi a Fostat (wani gari ne da ke Masar da Amru bn al-Aas ya gina bayan cin Masar da yaki) da hana shi shiga, to sai dai daga baya an yi sulhu kan cewa Muhammad da mutanensa 30 (ciki har da Abdurrahman bn Udais) za su fita daga garin ba tare da Mu'awiyya ya cutar da su ba. Amma daga baya Mu'awiyya ya karya wannan yarjejeniya inda ya kame su da tsare su a Damaskus, daga baya kuma bawan Mu'awiyyan mai suna Roshdain ya kashe shi. Muhammad yana daga cikin sahabban Manzon (s)(3).

4. Abdurrahman bn Udais al-Balwi:

Yana daga cikin sahabban da suka yi mubaya'a ga Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) a karkashin bishiya (Bai'at al-Shajara), yana daga cikin wadanda suka ci Masar da yaki, sannan kuma shi ne ya jagoranci mutanen da suka kai hari wa halifa Usman (saboda wasu dalilai) daga Masar. Mu'awiyya ya kama shi tare da Muhammad bn Abi Huzaifa bayan sun bar Masar da tsare shi a Palastinu kana daga baya ya kashe shi a shekara ta 36 hijiriyya bayan tserewar da ya yi daga gidan yari da sake kame shi da ya yi(4).

5. Muhammad bn Abi Bakr:

Mahaifiyarsa ita ce Asma'u bint Umais, halifa Abubakr ya aure ta ne bayan shahadar mijinta Ja'afar bn Abi Talib inda ta haifi Muhammad. Bayan mutuwar mahaifinsa, Imam Ali (a.s) ya dauke shi da kula da shi. Ya kasance tare da Imam Ali (a.s) a yakukuwan Jamal da Siffin, daga baya kuma ya nada shi gwamnan Masar. Mu'awiyya ya tura da runduna karkashin jagorancin Amru bn al-Aas don yakansa a Masar inda suka sami nasarar kama shi da kashe shi, daga baya kuma suka sanya gawarsa cikin cikin wani macaccen jaki da kona shi(5).

6. Sa'asa'a bn Sauhan al-Abdi:

Ya musulunta ne a lokacin Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a), ya kasance mutum mai fasaha wajen magana, sannan kuma ya kasance tare da Imam Ali (a.s) a Siffin. Mu'awiyya ya kore shi zuwa Bahrain bayan da ya dare karagar mulki, inda ya rasu a can(6).

7. Malik al-Ashtar al-Nakha'i:

Ya riski Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) sannan kuma yana daga cikin mutane masu gaskiya da rikon amana, ya samu wannan lakabi na al-Ashtar ne bayan ciwon da ya samu a idonsa a yakin Yarmuk. Ya kasance tare da Imam Ali (a.s) a yakukuwan Jamal da Siffin kuma ya taka gagarumar rawa a cikinsu. Imam Ali (a.s) ya nada shi gwamnansa a Masar a shekara ta 38 hijiriyya, to sai dai a hanyarsa ya yi shahada sakamakon guban da Mu'awiyya ya sanya masa cikin abinci(7).

To wannan dai shi ne labari ko tatsuniyar samuwar Abdullah bn Saba, sannan wadannan mutane kuma da ma wasunsu su ne fitattun Sabi'awa da wasu malaman tarihi (abin bakin ciki) suka ce su ne mabiya wannan 'bayahude', wanda ko ba a fadi ba sun fi karfin a ce wani bayahude ya zo dare guda ya yi wasa da hankulansu da mai she su yaransa. Daga baya dai za mu ga manufar wadannan mutane na kirkiran wannan labari maras tushe na samuwar mutumin da suka kira Abdullah bn Saba.

Tushen Wannan Kagaggen Labari:

Bayan mun ga wannan kagaggen labari, yanzu kuma bari mu ga tushe da kuma inda labarin ya fito sannan kuma mu ga rashin ingancinsa.

Cikin karnoni goma da suka wuce da wuya ka samu wani malamin tarihi da zai yi rubutu kan sahabbai da bai tabo wannan tatsuniya ta Abdullah bn Saba ba. Don gane inganci ko rashin ingancin wannan labari dole ne a koma ga tushen da wannan labari ya fito da kuma inda masu kawo shi suka samo shi. Yanzu bari mu yi dubi cikin wasu daga cikin mutanen da suka yi rubutu kan wannan kagaggen mutumi, don ganin inda suka dauko labarin nasu:

1. Muhammad Rashid Ridha:

A cikin littafinsa mai suna al-Sunna wa al-Shi'a shafi na 4-6, Muhammad Rashid Ridha na cewa: "Shi'ancin halifa na hudu Aliyu bn Abi Talib (r.a.) dai shi ummul aba'isin kana mafarin rarrabuwan wannan al'umma ta Muhammadu a bangaren addini da siyasarta. Wanda ya kirkiro ta kuwa shi ne wani bayahude mai suna Abdullah bn Saba, wanda ya ce wai ya musulunta don yaudara, ya yi kira wajen wuce gona da iri (guluwi) akan Ali (karramallahu wajhahu) don rarraba kan wannan al'umma da lalata mata duniyarta da lahirarta". Daga nan sai ya ci gaba da cewa: "Duk wanda ya duba kissar Yakin Jamal cikin tarihin Ibn Athir zai ga irin tasirin da Sabi'awa suka yi wajen hana wanzuwar sulhu,".

A nan za mu ga cewa tushen da Muhammad Rashid Ridha ya dogara da shi wajen wannan labari na sa shi ne Tarikh al-Kamil na Ibn Athir.

2. Abul Fida' Isma'il bn Ali Imaduddeen

Shi ma yayin da yake kawo wannan labarin cikin littafin al-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar cewa ya ke yi: "Na takaita wannan labarin ne cikin littafina daga abin da na dauko daga littafin Shaikh Izzuddeen Ali wanda aka fi sani da Ibn Athir al-Jazari".

A nan za mu ga tushen labarin wadannan malamai biyu dai shi ne Ibn Athir. To yanzu ba ri mu ga shi kuma Ibn Athir daga ina ya samo nasa labarin.

3- Ibn Athir:

Idan muka duba littafin tarihi na Ibn Athir (wanda ya rasu a shekara ta 630 hijiriyya) za mu ga ya kawo wannan labari dukkansa cikin abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 30-36 hijiriyya sai dai kawai bai kawo tushen da ya dogara da shi ba sai cikin gabatarwar littafin nasa, inda ya ke cewa ya dibo labarin nasa ne daga littafin Imam Abu Ja'afar al-Tabari, wanda ya ce shi ne littafin da malamai suke komawa gare shi a lokacin da suka sami sabani.

Wannan dai shi ne abin da Ibn Athir, wanda Muhammad Rashid Ridha da Abul Fida' suka samo daga gare shi, yana cewa tushen labarinsa shi ne al-Tabari.

4. Ibn Kathir:

Haka nan shi ma Ibn Kathir, wanda ya rasu a shekara ta 774 hijiriyya, ya kawo wannan labari cikin juzu'i na 7 na littafinsa Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, shafi na 167, inda yake cewa: "Saif bn Umar yana cewa musabbabin boren da aka yi wa Usman shi ne wani mutum da ake ce ma Abdullah bn Saba - asalinsa bayahude ne sai ya bayyanar da musuluncinsa inda ya tafi Masar ya sanya wasu maganganu da ya kirkiro ga wasu mutane". Daga nan sai ya ci gaba da bayani har ya kai batun yakin Jamal, inda yace: "Wannan shi ne takaiceccen bayanin da Abu Ja'afar bn Jarir - Allah Ya jikansa - ya rubuta".

A nan muna iya fahimtar cewa al-Tabari dai shi ne tushen labarin Ibn Kathir.

5- Ibn Khaldun:

Shi ma Ibn Khaldun cikin littafin tarihinsa mai suna Al-Mubtada' wa al-Khabar ya kawo labarin Sabi'awa yayin da yake magana kan kashe halifa Usman da kuma yakin Jamal, cikin juzu'i na 2, shafi na 425 na wannan littafi cewa ya ke yi: "Wannan abin da na kalato ne daga littafin Abu Ja'afar al-Tabari saboda tabbaci da ingancinsa...".

Shi ma dai al-Tabari shi ne tushen labarinsa.

6. Ahmad Amin:

Ahmad Amin wanda ya mutu a shekara ta 1373 hijiriyya yana daga cikin malumman wannan zamani da suka yi magana kan Sabi'awa da Abdullah bn Saba, inda a cikin littafinsa mai suna Fajr al-Islam ya yi bayani sosai kan wannan batu da kuma jingina wannan mutum da suka kira Abdullah bn Saba ga kafuwar shi'anci. Shi ma dai tushen labarin nasa shi ne al-Tabari.

Wannan kadan kenan daga cikin malumman da suka ruwaito wannan tatsuniya daga wajen Tabari. To yanzu bari mu yi dubi kan shi kansa Tabarin mu ga shi kuma daga ina ya samo nasa labarin:

Tabari Da Tushen Labarinsa:

Abu Ja'afar Muhammad bn Jarir bn Yazid al-Tabari al-Amuli, wanda ya rasu a shekara ta 310 hijiriyya ya samo kissar Sabi'awa cikin littafinsa mai suna Tarikh al-Umam wa al-Muluk daga wajen Saif Ibn Umar al-Tamimi ne kawai. Yayin da yake magana kan abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 30 hijiriyya cewa ya ke yi: "A wannan shekara , wato shekara ta 30 an ambaci abubuwa daban-daban kan abubuwan da suka faru tsakanin Mu'awiyya da Abu Zar, ba na so in ambato su duka, al-Sari ya rubuta min dangane da wadanda suke ba wa Mu'awiyya uzuri kan batun Abu Zar. Shu'aib ya gaya wa al-Sari cewa Saif yana cewa" Lokacin da Ibn Sawda' (Abdullah bn Saba) ya iso Sham ya gana da Abu Zar yana ce masa: Ya Aba Zar ba ka ga abin da Mu'awiyya ya ke aikatawa ba..."(8).

Daga nan sai Tabari ya kawo kissar Ibn Saba da Abu Zar ta hanyar Saif kawai, inda ya cika maganar tasa da cewa: "Amma wasu sun ruwaito dalilai da dama kan wannan lamari (mayar da Abu Zar Madina da Mu'awiyya ya yi) da kuma wasu munanan abubuwa da ba na son kawo su a nan".

Har ila yau kuma yayin da yake batun abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 30-36 hijiriyya ya kawo kissar Ibn Saba da Sabi'awa wajen kashe halifa Usman da kuma yakin Jamal ta wajen Saif shi kadai dinsa ba tare da dogaro da wata hanya ta daban ba.

Don haka Tabari dai yana samo bayanansa daga Saif ne ta hanyoyi biyu:

 

  • Ubaidullah bn Sa'id al-Zuhuri daga baffansa Ya'akub bn Ibrahim daga Saif. A nan Tabari ya kan samo hadisan Saif ne ta harshen baki.
  • Al-Sari bn Yahya daga, daga Shu'aib bn Ibrahim, daga Saif. A nan Tabari ya kan samo hadisan Saif din ta hanyar rubutu, wato ta hanyar littattafan nan nasa guda biyu Al-Futuh al-Kabir wa al-Ridda da kuma Al-Jamal wa Masir A'isha wa Ali.

Daga nan za mu fahimci cewa tushen kissar Tabari shi ne Saif bn Umar al-Tamimi.

Akwai kuma wasu malumman na daban wadanda su ma sun ruwaito kissar Abdullah bn Saba da Sabi'awa sai dai ba ta hannun Tabari ba, su sun ruwaito tasu kissar ne ko dai kai tsaye daga Saif bn Umar ko kuma wasu da suke kusa da shi. Daga cikin wadannan malumma akwai:

1. Ibn Asakir

Ibn Asakir wanda ya rasu a shekara ta 571 hijiriyya yana da nasa tushen da ya samo wannan labari na Ibn Saba da Sabi'awa a cikin littafinsa mai suna Tarikh Damashk. Wannan tushe ko hanya ta Ibn Asakir zuwa ga hadisan Saif kuwa ita ce: Abul Kasim Sarmakandi, daga Abul Husain al-Nakkur, daga Abu Tahir al-Mukhallas daga Abubakar bn Saif daga al-Sari bn Yahya daga Shu'aib bn Ibrahim daga Saif bn Umar(9).

Wannan dai shi ne tushen da Ibn Asakir ya ruwaito nasa labarin da yake karewa zuwa ga Saif bn Umar.

2- Al-Zahabi:

Shi ma Zahabi wanda ya rasu a shekara ta 747 cikin littafinsa Tarikh al-Islam ya ruwaito wannan labarin yayin da yake magana kan kashe halifa Usman da kuma abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 35 hijiriyya, cikin juzu'i na 2 shafi na 122-128 na wannan littafi ya kawo wannan labari inda yake cewa: "Saif bn Umar daga Atiya daga Yazid al-Fak'asi yace: 'Lokacin da Ibn Sawda' (Abdullah bn Saba) ya isa Masar...".

A nan ma za mu ga tushen wannan labari na al-Zahabi shi ne Saif bn Umar al-Tamimi. Da dai sauran malamai da suka yi magana kan wannan batu.

Daga abin da ya gabata za mu ga cewa tushe da mabubbugan dukkan wadanda suka yi magana kan Abdullah bn Saba da mabiyansa (Sabi'awa) shi ne Saif bn Umar al-Tamimi shi kadai dinsa. Wato wasu daga cikinsu sun samo wannan labari ne kai tsaye daga wajen Saif wasu kuma sun samo shi ba kai tsaye ba.

Wane Ne Saif bn Umar Da Kuma Ingancin Labaransa:

To yanzu bari mu yi dubi mu ga shin wane ne wannan Saif din da ake magana a kansa, sannan kuma mene ne ra'ayin malamai dangane da labaran da ya kawo.

Shi ne dai Saif bn Umar al-Tamimi al-Usayyadi kamar yadda ya zo cikin Tabari, juzu'i 1shafi 1749 da Urobba wa Lubabul Ansab juzu'i na 1, shafi na 49. Shi dai asalinsa mutumin Kufa ne amma ya rayu ne a Bagadaza. Kuma kamar yadda wasu bayanai suka nuna ya mutu ne a shekara ta 170 a lokacin mulkin Haruna Rashid. Wasu kuma suna ganin ya mutu ne a shekara ta 200.

Kimanta Hadisan Saif

Da yake mun ga dan kadan daga cikin tarihin Saif, yanzu kuma bari mu ga kima da mizanin inganci ko rashin ingancin hadisansa a mahangar malamai.

 

  1. Yahya Bn Mu'in (233 H): "Hadisansa raunana ne marasa tushe". (Dubi Mizan al-I'itidal, juzu'i na 2, shafi na 255)..
  2. Abu Dawud (275 H): "Shi ba a bakin komai yake ba, makaryaci ne".
  3. Nisa'i (303 H): Cikin Sunan yana cewa: "Hadisansa masu rauni ne, yasassu ne, ba bin dogara ba ne kuma ba abin amincewa ba ne".
  4. Ibn Abi Hatam (327 H): "(hadisansa) yasassu ne".
  5. Ibn al-Sakan (353 H): "(hadisansa) raunana ne".
  6. Ibn Udaiy (365 H): raunana ne, wasu daga cikin hadisansa sanannu ne amma dai ba a aiki da su.
  7. Al-Hakim (405 H): "(hadisansa) yasassu ne, ana tuhumarsa da zindikanci".
  8. Ibn Abd al-Bar (463 H):Ya nakalto daga Abu Hayan cewa: Hadisan Saif yasassu ne, mun kawo su ne kawai don masaniyya kawai.
  9. Firuz Abadi (817 H): Ya ambaci (Saif) tare da wasu mutane ya ce (hadisansu) raunana ne.
  10. Ibn Hajar (923 H): Bayan ya karanto wani hadisi sai ya ce akwai raunana cikin (maruwaitansa) amma wanda duk ya fi su rauni shi ne Saif.

Wannan dai shi ne ra'ayin wasu daga cikin malumma dangane da Saif bn Umar da hadisansa da suke nuna mana rashin nitsuwarsu kan maganganunsa.

To kafin mu je ga karshen wannan bahasi da kuma fitar da natija (sakamako), bari mu kawo labari guda da aka samo daga wajen Saif din da kwatanta shi da yadda sauran malamai suka kawo shi don ganin rashin ingancin maganarsa da kuma irin yadda ya ke juya labarin don biyan bukatu da son zuciyarsa. Wannan labari kuwa da za mu yi Moneygram agent dubi a kansa shi ne: Batun Rundunar Usama. Za mu yi wannan nazari ne kuwa ta hanyar dubi cikin masdarori da malaman da suka dogara da hadisan Saif din, wanda Tabari shi ne a gabansu saboda yawan ruwayoyin da ya debo daga Saif din.

LABARIN RUNDUNAR USAMA:

Yadda Saif Ya Kawo Shi:

Ga yadda Saif Ya kawo wannan labari kamar yadda Tabari cikin Tarihinsa juzu'i na 1,da Ibn Asakir juzu'i na 1, shafi na 426 yayin da suke magana kan abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 11 bayan hijira, inda suke cewa:

"Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a), kafin rasuwarsa, ya tara rundanar soji ta sahabbai cikinsu har da Umar bn Khattab ya sanya su karkashin jagorancin Usama bn Zaid (don fita yaki), to amma ba su fita daga Madina ba, sai Allah Ya yi wa Manzo rasuwa, don haka sai Usama ya tsaya tsakankanin mutane ya bukaci Umar: da ya koma ga halifan Manzon Allah da ya ba shi izinin dawo da rundunar zuwa Madina". Daga nan sai ya ci gaba da cewa sai wasu daga cikin Ansarawa (Mutanen Madina) suka bukaci Umar da ya ce wa Abubakar ya sake musu Usama da wani mutum a matsayin kwamanda, lokacin da Umar ya gaya wa Abubakar wannan bukata sai ya (Abubakar) mike tsaye ya kama gemunsa yana cewa: "Kaiconka Ya Ibn al-Khattab, Manzon Allah ne fa ya nada shi kai kuma kana son in tube shi da nada wani a madadinsa!!!. Daga nan sai Abubakar ya yi musu wasu wasicci sannan kuma ya yi musu ban kwana..."

Wannan dai shi ne labarin Saif kan abin da ya faru dangane da batun tura sojoji karkashin jagorancin Usama da Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya yi.

To yanzu kuma bari mu ga abin da wasu malumman suka fadi dangane da batu:

"Wata rana ranar Litinin kwanaki hudu kafin fitar watan Safar, Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya umarci sahabbansa da su yi shirin fita yaki da Romawa. Washe gari sai Annabi (s.a.w.a) ya kira Usama ya ce masa kama hanya da (wadannan sojoji) zuwa inda mahaifinka ya yi shahada na nada ka shugabansu….a ranar laraba sai ciwo ya kama Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a), ranar alhamis sai Annabi da kansa ya dauko tuta ya ba wa Usama ya ce masa ya kama hanya…daga cikin sahabban da suke cikin wannan runduna har da manyan Muhajirai da Ansarawa irin su Abubakar al-Siddik, Umar bn al-Khattab, Abu Ubaidah bn al-Jarra, Sa'ad bn Abi Wakkas,Said bn Zaid da dai sauransu. Wasu daga cikinsu sun nuna rashin jin dadinsu kan wanna zabe da Manzo ya yi wa Usama da dora shi a kan manyan Muhajirai, Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya yi tsananin fushi lokacin da ya ji wannan kunkuni, don haka sai ya fito cikin tsananin rashin lafiya ya hau kan mimbari yana cewa: "Wata magana ce na ke ji daga wajen wasunku dangane da shugabantar da Usama da na yi, haka ku ka yi a baya lokacin da na nada mahaifinsa, wallahi ya cancanci wannan shugabanci kamar yadda dansa ya cancanta, daga nan sai ya sauko……ciwo dai ya ci gaba da zafi wa Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a), ranar lahadi ciwo ya ci gaba da tsananin wa Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) sai Usama ya shiga zuwa wajensa, amma saboda zafin ciwo Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) bai iya masa magana ba sai kawai ya sumbance shi don ba ya iya magana. Ranar litinin sai Usama ya sake dawowa a lokacin jikin Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya dan yi sauki sai ya ce masa: Kama hanya cikin kulawar Ubangiji, sai Usama ya yi masa ban kwana. Daga nan sai ya tafi sansaninsa ya umarci mutane da su kama hanya, zai hau abin hawarsa kenan, sai ga manzon ma'aifiyarsa Ummu Aiman yana ce masa Manzo fa zai rasu don haka ka zo. Sai Usama da Umar da Abu Ubaidah suka koma Madina, a wannan ranar ne Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya rasu. Bayan rasuwar Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) da kuma zaban Abubakar da aka yi a matsayin halifa, sai ya umarci Usama da ya ci gaba da tafiya kamar yadda Manzo ya umarce shi….". Don karin bayani sai a duba Dabakat na Ibn Sa'ad juzu'i na 2, shafi na 190-192 da Uyun al-Athar juzu'i na 2, shafi na 281. Kanzul Ummal juzu'i na 5, shafi 312, Ansab al-Ashraf kan tarihin Usama, juzu'i na 1, shafi na 474 daga Ibn Abbas da kuma tarihinsa (Usama) cikin al-Tahzib na Ibn Asakir juzu'i na 3, shafi na 291 da kuma Tarikh al-Ya'akubi juzu'i na 2, shafi na 74 da kuma Ibn Athir cikin tarihinsa, juzu'i na 2, shafi na 123.

Kwatanta Labaran Biyu:

To yanzu kuma bari mu kwatanta labarin da Saif ya kawo da wanda sauran malamai suka kawo mu ga irin banbancin da ke cikinsu da kuma abin da Saif din ya ke son cimmawa:

 

  1. Saif ya ce: Sojojin Usaman ma ba su gama fita daga Madina ba sai Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya rasu, alhali kuwa sauran malamai sun ce sun ma fita har ma sun zauna a sansaninsu da ke wajen Madina na kwanaki.

    A nan Saif dai na so ne ya boye kunkuni da ta da jijiyoyin wuya da wasu suka yi ne saboda nada Usama da Manzo ya yi, lamarin da ya sa Manzo din ya yi tsananin fushi, ga shi kuma ya na cikin rashin lafiya, har ma ya ke ta jaddada cewa Usama ya kama hanya ya tafi.

  2. Haka nan Saif ya ce wai lokacin da Usama ya ji labarin cewa Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya rasu sai ya tura halifa Umar wajen magajin Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) don neman izininsa kan sojojin su dawo gida, alhali kuwa sauran ruwayoyi cewa suka yi lokacin da ya ji labarin jikin Manzon Allah (s.a.w.a) ya yi tsanani sai ya tafi Madina tare da Umar, Abubakar da Abu Ubaida. Sannan bayan rasuwar Ma'aiki da kuma nada halifa Abubakar ne ya tura sojojin suka ci gaba.

    A nan ma dai Saif yana son ya boye wani abu da kuma bayyanar da wasu abubuwa, daga cikinsu kuwa shi ne nuna cewa an ma zabi halifa Abubakar ne tun Annabi (s.a.w.a) yana da rai da dai sauran abubuwa.

  3. Haka nan kuma Saif ya ce Ansarawa ne suka bukaci halifa Abubakar da ya tube Usama da nada wani kwamanda na daban, alhali sauran malumma kuma cewa suka yi Muhajirai ne suka bukaci hakan.

    A nan ma dai Saif ya yi kokari juya tarihi ne don biyan bukatan masu mulki na wancan lokacin wadanda Muhajirai ne.

Da dai sauran irin wadannan karo da juna da aka samu cikin labarin Saif din da na sauran marubuta, wannan ke nuna mana kaurin sunan da ya yi wajen kago karya da jingina ta ga sauran mutane.

A hakikanin gaskiya a kusan dukkanin abubuwan da Saif ya kawo labarinsu sai an samu karo da juna idan aka kwatanta da na sauran malaman tarihi, batutuwa kamar su abubuwan da suka faru a Sakifa, yadda aka nada halifa na farko, yakin da ake kira Yakin Ridda da dai sauransu, duk dai da nufin goya wa wadansu mutane baya da kuma cin mutumcin wasu.

Mai karatu, daga abubuwan da suka gabata za mu iya fahimtar rashin ingancin wannan ikirari na samuwar Abdullah bn Saba ballantana ma a jingina shi da kafuwar Shi'anci, hakan kuwa saboda rashin tushen da kuma ingancin yadda aka samo wannan labari. Don kuwa:

 

  1. Kashin farko na wadanda suka kawo wannan labari sun samo shi daga wajen Tabari, shi kuma Tabari ya samo shi ne daga wajen Saif bn Umar al-Tamimi, wanda aka san shi da karya da kago labarurruka marasa tushe don biyan bukatun wasu mutane.
  2. Kashi na biyu na wadanda suka kawo wannan labari sun samo shi ne kai tsaye ta wajen Saif din da ba a karbar labarinsa saboda karya da kage.
  3. Don haka wannan labari ba shi da wani tushe, don kuwa ya fito ne daga hanyar da ba a yarda da ita saboda cike take da karya da kage-kage, wannan hanya kuwa ita ce Saif bn Umar al-Tamimi.

Wannan dai bayani ne a takaice wanda kowa da kowa zai iya fahimtarsa, don haka babu bukatar mu zurfafa wajen bayani.

Allah dai Ya tsare mu da son zuciya da kuma murguda gaskiya da bayyanar da karya don son zuciyarmu da kuma bakanta wani abu ba don komai ba sai don ya saba wa ra'ayinmu da kuma biyan bukatan wasu mutane.





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(1)- Tabakat na Ibn Sa'ad, Musnad Ahmad, juzu'i na 2, shafi na 163, 175,223, da kuma juzu'i na 5, shafi na 147, 155, 159, 165, 166, 172, 174, 351, 356 da kuma juzu'i na 6, shafi na 442 da kuma al-Mustadrak na Hakim, juzu'i na 3, shafi na 342. Sai kuma Sahih Bukhari, babin Manakib Abi Zar cikin Kitab al-Manakib, da kuma Sahih Tirmizi da Sahih Muslim Kitab al-Manakib, da Sunan Ibn Majah juzu'i na 1, shafi na 55 da Tabari da Ibn Athir yayin da suke magana kan Yakin Tabuka da dai sauransu.

(2)- Muruj al-Zahab na Mas'udi, juzu'i na 2 shafi na 21 da 22, Tabari da Ibn Athir da Ibn Kathir yayin da suke magana kan abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 36-37 hijiriyya, Ansab al-Ashraf na Balazuri, juzu'i na 5, shafi na 48-88, Musnad Ahmad juzu'i na 1, shafi na 99, 123, 125, 130, 137, 404 da juzu'i na 2 shafi na 161, 164, 206 da juzu'i na 3 shafi na 5, 22, 28, 90 da juzu'i na 4, shafi na 76, 89, 90, 197, 198. 319 da juzu'i na 5, shafi na 214, 306 da juzu'i na 6 shafi na 289, 300, 311, 315, 450 da kuma Sahih Bukhari, Kitab al-Jihad, Sahih Muslim cikin Kitab al-Fitan, Sunan al-Tirmizi babi na 33 cikin Kitab al-Manakib da dai sauransu.

(3)- Dubi Tabari, Ibn Athir da Ibn Kathir yayin da suke magana kan abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 30-36 hijiriyya al-Isabah karkashin harafin Mim, da al-Isti'ab juzu'i na 3, shafi na 321-322.

(4)- Dubi Tabari, Ibn Athir da Ibn Kathir yayin da suke magana kan abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 30-36 hijiriyya da Asadul Gabah, 3/309.

(5)- Dubi Tabari, Ibn Athir da Ibn Kathir yayin da suke magana kan abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 37 hijiriyya, al-Isabah karkashin harafin Mim, da al-Isti'ab juzu'i na 3, shafi na 328-329.

(6)- Duba tarihinsa cikin al-Isti'ab da Asadul Gaba da al-Isaba bugun Misira.

(7)- Dubi abubuwan da suka faru a shekara ta 38 hijiriyya cikin littafin Tabari juzu'i na 6 shafi na 54, Ibn Athir, juzu'i na 3 shafi na 14, Ibn Kathir, tarihinsa cikin al-Isaba karkashin harafin Mim da al-Isti'ab juzu'i na 3, shafi na 328 da Muruj al-Zahab juzu'i na 6 shafi na 29 babin Hurubihi (r.a.) ma'a Ahl al-Nahrawan.

(8)- Dubi Tabarin cikin Tarikh al-Umam wa al-Muluk, juzu'i na 3, shafi na 335.

(9)- Don karin bayani dubi shafi na 304, 484, 485, 496, 513, 545, 547 da 551 na juzu'i na 1 na wannan littafi na Ibn Asakir.

(10)- Suratul Kasas; 28:85.

(11)- Don karin bayani ana iya duba Tarikh al-Tabari, juzu'i na 3, shafi na 378.

(12)- Mai son karin bayani yana iya duba Ibn Athir, cikin al-Kamil, juzu'i na 2, shafi na 24; da Biharul-Anwar, juzu'i na 18, shafi na 164; da Fikihul-Sirah, na Sheikh Muhammad Gazzali, shafi na 102.

(13)- Wadanda suka fitar da wannan sun hada da: Baihaki cikin Sunan da Dala'il da Tha'alabi da Dabari cikin tafsiransu, wajen fassarar Surar Shu'ara'i; da Dabari cikin tarihinsa, juzu'i na 2, shafi na 217; da Ibn Athir cikin al-Kamil, juzu'i na 2, shafi na 22, da Siratul-Halabiyya, juzu'i na 1, shafi na 381; da Ahmad bin Hambali, cikin Musnad, juzu'i na 1, shafi na 11; da Nasa'i cikin Khasa'isu Amirul Mu'uminin, shafi na 6; da Kanzul Ummal, juzu'i na 6, hadisi na 6008, da wasun wadannan da lafuzza masu kusantar juna.