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05 December 2021

Aikin Hajji A Takaice

Aikin hajji yana daga cikin rukunnan addinin musulunci kuma daya ne daga cikin wajibai da aka karfafa su a kan duk wani musulmi da ya samu ikon ziyartar kasa mai tsarki.

Allah Madaukakin Sarki yana cewa:

“Kuma Allah ya dora ziyartar Dakin Ka’aba a kan mutane ga wanda ya samu ikon zuwa gare shi, kuma wanda ya kafirta, to lalle Allah mawadaci ne daga barin talikai”.

 

Har ila yau, ya zo cikin hadisi cewa: Wanda har ya mutu bai yi aikin hajjin wajibi ba, kuma ba talauci ko rashin lafiya ko kuma hana shi zuwa aka yi bisa zalunci ba, to idan ya ga dama ya mutu bayahude ko banasare.

 

Rabe-Raben Aikin Hajji.

 

Aikin Hajji Nau'i Uku Ne Kamar Haka:-

Nau'i na farko shi ne: Hajjin Tamattu’i.

Nau'i na biyu shi ne: Hajjin Kirani.

Nau'i na uku shi ne: Hajjin Ifradi.

 

Aikin Hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne wajibin da ya hau kan mutumin da yake zaune nesa da garin Makkah, nisan da ya kai kilomita tamanin da takwas.

Aikin Hajjin Kirani ko Ifradi shi ne wajibin da ya hau kan mutumin da yake zaune a garin Makkah da kewayensa, wato duk wanda yake zaune a cikin garin Makkah ko wajen garin da bai kai nisan kilomita tamanin da takwas ba, to aikin hajjin Kirani ko Ifradi ne ya hau kansa.

Amma dangane da hukuncin aikin hajjin mustahabi ko bakance ko kuma aikin hajjin da aka yi wasici da shi, to ya halatta ga mazaunin garin Makkah da kewansa ko wanda yake nesa da garin Makkah, ya zabi duk aikin hajjin da ya dama a tsakanin nau'o'in aikin hajji guda uku da muka ambata ya aikata.

Aikin Umuran Tamattu’i na wajibi shi ne Umuran da ya hau kan mutumin da yake zaune nesa da garin Makkah, nisan da ya kai kilomita tamanin da takwas. Yayin da aikin Umuran mufradi na wajibi shi ne Umuran da ya hau kan mutumin da yake zaune a garin Makkah da kewayensa, wato mazauninsa bai kai nisan kilometer tamanin da takwas daga garin Makkah ba.   

Ganin aikin hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne wajibin da ya hau kan mafi yawan al'ummomin duniya, domin su na zaune ne nesa da garin Makkah, don haka zamu yi takaitaccen bayani kan yadda ake gudanar da aikin hajjin na Tamattu’i kamar haka:-

Mutumin da aikin hajjin Tamattu’i ne wajibin da ya hau kansa, zai fara ne da gudanar umurah, sannan ya kare da aikin hajjin Tamattu’i. Wato Umarah ita ce juzu'in farko na aikin hajjinsa.

Wajiban Umuran Tamattu’i guda biyar ne: Na farko shi ne Ihrami, na biyu Dawafi, na uku Sallar Dawafi, na hudu Sa'ayi wato tafiya tsakanin Safa da Marwa, na biyar Saisaye wato rage wani abu daga gashi ko farce.

Yadda ake gudanar da aikin Umuran Tamattu’i a aikace shi ne: Wajibi na farko a aikin Umuran Tamattu’i shi ne Ihrami. Wajiban daura haramin sune kamar haka:- {1} Niyya wato kudirta niyyar gudanar da Umuran Tamattu’i domin neman kusanci da Allah {2} Sanya tufar harami. {3} Talbiyya.

Mutumin da yake da niyyar gudanar da aikin hajjin Tamattu’i, zai fara ne da daura harami a daya daga cikin wajaje guda biyar da maniyyata aikin hajji ke daura harami, da ake kiran wajajen da Miqati a larabce. Kuma wajibi ne mutum ya daura haraminsa a miqatin da ta wajen ne zai shige zuwa cikin garin Makkah.

Wajajen da ake daura haramin kuwa wato miqati sune kamar haka:- {1} Masjidush-Shajara wato Zu-khulaifah. {2} Juhfah. {3} Wadil-Aqiq. {4} Qarnul-Mana'zil. {5} Yalamlam.

Amma maniyyata aikin hajjin da suke zuwa kasa mai tsarki ta hanyar jirgin sama dake sauka a filin jirgin saman Jiddah, ba za su daura haraminsu daga Jiddah ba, domin baya daga cikin wajajen da ake daura harami (wato baya daga cikin miqati), don haka maniyyata aikin na hajji za su koma daya daga cikin miqatin da ya fi kusa da su domin daura haraminsu, misalin Juhfah ko Qarnul-Mana'zil dake Da'ifa ko Masjidu-Shajara dake Madinah.

Bayan maniyyaci ya daura harami ta hanyar sanya tufafin haraminsa wato kyalle guda biyu,  inda zai daura daya da zai suturce tsakanin cibiyarsa da gwiwarsa ko fiye da haka, ya kuma yi mayafi da daya, wato ya yafa kyalle daya da zai suturce kafadunsa da wani bangare na bayansa, sannan sai ya kudurta niyyar yin harama da Umuran Tamattu’i na hajjin wajibi domin neman kusanci da Allah. Sannan ya fara talbiyya da cewa:-

Idan mutum ya daura harami, to ya zame muhrimi-wato aikata wasu abubuwa ya haramta a gare shi, misalin saduwa da mace, sumbantarta, shafan jikinta ko kallonta domin sha'awa, kamar yadda ita ma mace aikata wadannan abubuwa suka haramta gare ta. Haka nan sanya turare, shafa mai, sanya tufa kewayye ga namiji, farauta da sauransu.

Amma dangane da hukuncin mace wajen daura harami, tufafinta na al'ada shi ne haraminta, wato ba kamar namiji ba ne da zai daura harami ta hanyar sanya kyalle biyu.

Akwai kuma wasu ayyukan mustahabbi a wajen daura harami, misalin yin wanka kafin daura harami da makamantan haka. Amma tun farko mun bayyana cewa a takaice zamu yi bayanin hajji Tamattu’i, don haka sai mutum ya koma ga littattafan da suka yi magana a kan aikin hajji don samun cikekken bayani.

Wajibi na biyu a aikin Umuran Tamattu’i bayan Ihrami shi ne dawafi: Dawafi yana nufin kewaya Dakin Ka’aba. Yadda ake gudanar da dawafi kuwa shi ne: Mutum zai fara zagaya Dakin Ka’aba ne daga Hajrul-Aswad, Dakin Ka’aba yana hannunsa na hagun, sannan yayi niyyar yin dawafin Umuran Tamattu’i, sai ya fara zagaya Dakin na Ka’aba, inda zai zagaya har sau bakwai, wato idan ya fara daga wajen Hajrul-Aswad idan ya zagayo ya zo wajen da ya fara, yayi daya ke nan, haka har sau bakwai.

Wajibi ne mutum ya gudanar da dawafin cikin tsarki kuma ya kasance cikin alwala. Haka nan mutum ya kasance cikin tsarkin jiki dana tufa.  

Wajibi na uku a aikin Umuran Tamattu’i bayan dawafi shi ne sallar dawafi: Sallar dawafi raka'a biyu ne da mutum zai yi da zarar ya gama dawafi, kuma ba dole ba ne sai mutum yayi sallar a bayan maqama-Ibrahima, ya isar masa ya gudanar da sallar a duk wajen da ya samu sarari a kusa da makama-Ibrahima.

Wajibi na hudu a cikin aikin Umuran Tamattu’i bayan sallar dawafi shi ne sa'ayi:  Sa'ayi yana nufin tafiya tsakanin safa da marwa sau bakwai. Yadda ake gudanar da shi kuwa shi ne: Mutum ya kudurta niyyar yin sa'ayi tsakanin safa da marwa na Umuran Tamattu’i na wajibi, sai ya fara tafiya daga safa ya zo marwa, tafiya daya ke nan, sannan daga marwa ya dawo safa, tafiya biyu ke nan, har sau bakwai, wato tafiya daga safa zuwa marwa sau hudu daga marwa kuma zuwa safa sau uku, inda cikon tafiya na bakwai zai kare a marwa.

Wajibi na biyar kuma na karshe a Umuran Tamattu’i shi ne: Taqsir wato saisaye. Abin da ake nufi da saisaye a nan shi ne: Mutum ya aske wani abu daga cikin gashin kansa ko gemunsa ko gashin bakinsa ko kuma yanke farcen hannunsa ko na kafarsa.

Wanda da haka ne mutum ya kawo karshen aikin Umuran Tamattu’i. Kuma  abubuwan da aka haramta masa sanadiyyar daura harami, bayan gama saisaye sun halatta a gare shi, misalin saduwa da mace, sanya turare da sauransu. Sannan sai mutum ya jira lokacin daura haramin hajjin Tamattu’i.

Bangare Na Biyu Na Hajjin Tamattu’i

Bangare na biyu na aikin hajjin Tamattu’i wanda ya kunshi wajibai goma sha uku kamar haka:-

[1] Ihrami. [2] Tsayuwan-Arafah. [3] Tsayuwan Muzdalifah. [4] Jifan Shaidan. [5] Hadaya wato yanka ko suka. [6] Rage gashin kai ko askewa. [7] Dawafi. [8] Sallar Dawafi. [9] Sa'ayi (wato tafiya tsakanin Safah da Marwa). [10] Dawafun-Nisa'i. [11] Sallar Dawafin-Nisa'i. [12] Kwana a Minah. [13] Jifan Shaidan a wajaje uku wato Ulah, Wusda da Akbah. Wadannan sune ayyukan aikin hajjin Tamattu’i.

Yadda ake gudanar da aikin hajjin Tamattu’i a aikace:-

Wajibi na farko a aikin hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne Ihrami: Mahajjaci zai daura harami ne da niyyar yin aikin hajjin Tamattu’i daga Makkah a lokacin da ya san zai riski tsayuwar-Arafah kafin gotawar rana wato kafin shigan lokacin sallar azahar a ranar tara ga watan zul-hajji, amma abin da ya fi shi ne, daura haramin aikin hajjin Tamattu’i tun bayan sallar azahar din ranar tarwiya wato ranar takwas ga watan zul-hajji, kuma abin da aka fi so shi ne, mahajjaci ya daura haramin daga Masallacin Ka’abah, sai ya fara talbiyya wato:-

Da wannan ne mahajjaci ya fara gudanar da wajibin farko na aikin hajjinsa na Tamattu’i. 

Wajibi na biyu daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne hawan-arafah wato tsayiwan arafah a ranar tara ga watan Zul-Hajji, inda mahajjaci zai kasance a filin Arafah tun daga gotawar rana har zuwa faduwarta.

Wajibi na uku daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne tsayuwa a Muzdalifah, wato bayan faduwar rana, mahajjaci zai bar filin Arafah ya tafi Muzdalifah. Muzdalifah sunan waje ne kuma ana kiran wajen da Mash'arul-haram, inda mahajjaci zai kwana a Muzdalifah, sannan idan ya wayi gari wato a rana ta goma ke nan ga watan Zul-hajji kuma ranar sallah, sai ya tsaya a wurin har zuwa lokacin da rana zata fito, sannan ya tafi Minah domin gudanar da ayyukan ranar sallah.

Wajibi na hudu daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne Jifan- Shaidan. A lokacin da mahajjaci ya bar Mazdalifah ya isa Minah a ranar sallah zai fara ayyukan wannan ranar ce da jifan-shaidan, inda mahajjaci zai kudurta niyyar yin jifar, sannan ya gudanar da jifan shaidan da duwatsu guda bakwai, inda zai jefi shaidan da duwatsu bakwai daya bayan daya, wato ba zai hada duwatsun ya watsasu a lokaci daya ba.

Wajibi na biyar daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne hadaya wato yanka dabba ko suke rakumi. Wajibi ne yanka ko sukan da mahajjaci zai yi ya kasance bayan jifan Shaidan, kuma dabbar da zai yanka ko soke ta kasance lafiyayyiya.

Wajibi na shida daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne saisaye ko aski, wato mahajjaci ya rage gashinsa ko yayi aski, amma anfi fifita yin aski musamman idan mahajjaci yana gudanar da aikin hajjinsa na farko ne. Amma hukuncin mace, rage gashinta zata yi kawai ba aski ba.

Fadakarwa:-

Da zaran mahajjaci ya gama gudanar da ayyukansa na ranar sallah a Minah, wato Jifan shaidan, hadaya da saisaye ko aski, to abubuwan da aka haramta masa sun halatta gare shi, amma ban da kusantar mace da sanya turare.   

Daga nan mahajjaci yana da zabi, idan ya ga dama a wannan ranar wato ranar goma ga watan zul-hajji ke nan, kuma ranar sallar idin lahiya, sai ya tafi Makkah domin gudanar da sauran ayyukan aikin hajjinsa na Tamattu’i, idan kuma mahajjaci ya ga dama, sai ya ci gaba da zama a Minah har zuwa ranar goma sha biyu ga watan Zul-hajji.

A nan Idan mahajjaci ya zabi tafiya zuwa Makkah ne domin gudanar da sauran ayyukan hajjinsa na Tamattu’i, to ga yadda ake gudanar da ayyukan kamar haka:-

Lokacin da mahajjaci ya isa Makkah zai gudanar da wajibi na bakwai daga cikin ayyukansa na hajjin Tamattu’i, wato dawafin aikin hajjin Tamattu’i. Inda zai kudurta niyyar gudanar da dawafin, wato zagaya Dakin Ka’aba sau bakwai, wanda zai fara dawafin ne daga wajen Hajrul-Aswad, Dakin Ka’aba yana hannunsa na hagun kamar yadda muka yi bayani a dawafin Umuran Tamattu’i.

Wajibi na takwas daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne sallar dawafi raka'a biyu a bayan maqama-Ibrahima idan akwai yiyuwar hakan, saboda cinkoson mutane.

Wajibi na tara daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne Sa'ayi wato tafiya tsakanin Safah da Marwa sau bakwai, wanda mahajjaci zai fara gudanar da tafiyar daga Safah ya kare da Marwa.

Fadakarwa:-

Da zarar mahajjaci ya gudanar da dawafin hajjin Tamattu’i da Sa'ayinsa wato tafiya tsakanin Safah da Marwa, sanya turare da ya haramta gare shi ya halatta.

Wajibi na goma daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne gudanar da Dawafun-Nisa'i, wato bayan mahajjaci ya kudurta niyya sai ya zaga Dakin Ka’aba sau bakwai, kamar yadda ake gudanar da sauran dawafi.

Wajibi na goma sha daya daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne sallar dawafun-Nasa'i raka'a biyu, wato bayan mahajjaci ya gama dawafun-Nasa'i, sai ya kudurta niyya yayi sallah raka'a biyu a bayan maqama-Ibrahima, amma ya isar masa ya gudanar da sallar a duk wajen da ya samu sarari a kusa da maqama-Ibrahima saboda gujewa cinkoson jama'a.

Fadakarwa:-

Dawafun-Nisa'i da sallarsa raka'a biyu ba su daga cikin rukunin aikin hajjin Tamattu’i, wato idan mahajjaci ya bar su da gangan aikin hajjinsa bai baci ba, sai dai ya haramta a gare shi ya kusanci matarsa misalin saduwa da ita ko shafan jikinta ko kallonta da sha'awa, kamar yadda ita ma mahajjaciya data bar dawafun-Nisa'i da gangan wadannan abubuwa da muka ambata suka haramta gare ta.

Don haka da zarar mahajjaci ya gudanar da dawafun-Nisa'i da sallarsa kusantar matarsa ya halatta gare shi, kamar yadda ya halatta ga mahajjaciya ta kusanci mijinta. Saboda haka ne ake kirar dawafin da dawafun-Nisa'i, wato dawafin mata.  

 Bayan mahajjaci ya gama gudanar da ayyukan hajjinsa na Tamattu’i da suke Makkah a ranar sallar idi, wato ranar goma ga watan zul-hajji, to wajibi ne ya koma Minah a wannan ranar domin kwana a can.

Wajibi na goma sha biyu daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne kwana a Minah a daren ranar goma sha daya da goma sha biyu ga watan zul-hajji.

Abin da ake nufi da kwana a Minah shi ne akalla mahajjaci ya kasance a Minah tsawon rabin dare, wato idan aka raba dare kashi biyu daga lokacin faduwar rana zuwa fitowar alfijir na gaskiya, to kasancewar mahajjaci a daya daga cikin kashi biyun ya gamsar, wato ko dai mahajjaci ya zauna a Minah daga faduwar rana zuwa tsakiyar dare ko daga tsakiyar dare zuwa fitowan alfijir.

Wajibi na goma sha uku kuma na karshe daga cikin ayyukan hajjin Tamattu’i shi ne gudanar da jifan-shaidan a wajaje guda uku wato Jamratul-Ulah, Jamratul-Wusdah da Jamratul-Aqbah, wanda ake kiransu da Jamra'tus-Salasa a larabce.

Mahajjaci zai gudanar da jifan-shaidan ne a ranakun goma sha daya da goma sha biyu ga watan Zul-hajji, kuma zai gudanar da jifar ce kafin lokacin sallar Azahar ko bayansa.

Amma idan mahajjaci ya gama gudanar da jifar shaidan ta ranar goma sha biyu ga watan zul-hajji kafin gotawar rana, wato kafin shigan lokacin sallar Azahar, to ba zai fice daga Minah ba sai bayan gotawar rana.

Wajibi ne mahajjaci ya fara gudanar da jifan na shaidan a Jamratul-Ulah sau bakwai, sannan Jamratul-Wusdah sau bakwai, sannan Jamratul-Aqbah sau bakwai.

Dole ne jifar ta shaidan ta kasance da duwatsu guda bakwai, inda zai gudanar da jifar da dutse daya bayan daya, wato mahajjaci ba zai hada duwatsu ya watsasu a lokaci daya ba.

Wannan shi ne takaitaccen bayani kan bangare na biyu na aikin hajjin Tamattu’i, aikin hajjin da shi ne wajibin da ya hau kan mutumin da yake zaune nesa da garin Makkah, nisan da ya kai kilomita tamanin da takwas.